National Park “Pelister” abounds with various types of relief shapes that are formed through a long and very complex natural processes.
Stone River – Morena
From periglacijalnite relief that appeared on Pelister, certainly the most remarkable are the so-called stone rivers. This is actually the slope of the terrain filled with crushed material, composed of granite blocks, dolerit, gabbro and quartz schist, piled on each other, without any orientation. They are created by the time in the highest parts of mountain, snow climate ruled by sliding the substrate material over the base and alternate freezing and thawing. Stone rivers are strongest on the north side above the Red rocks and location “Kopanki.” At certain places on Pelister, stone rivers and long range up to 3km.
In the alpine regions of Pelister, there is another interesting phenomenon. That are stone seas. These striking periglacijal relief forms are generated by the grinding of rock ice surface, which is usually a mild slope, so devastated rocky material remains on the spot of creation. Classic appearance of such a sea of stones can be seen on the northeastern side of the peak Pelister, towards the top Steve.
In the high parts of Pelister dominated glaciation fossil relief, and meet lots of other interesting phenomena. It’s are sharp rocky reefs, improperly accrued rocks after widespread mountain crest, plowing blocks, stone rings, grass terraces and other phenomena that enrich the spectrum of natural rarities of Pelister.
The mountain Pelister traces are stored and diluvial mountain glaciation. They are expressed in the form of zirconс and morens. Of the four zircоns, at Pelister, two are filled with water and exist as glacial lakes.
Flora and Fauna
The flora of Pelister consists of more than 1050 systemic units of superior plants of which most, that is more than 900 kinds, are hidden-seed plants. Among the superior plants about 90 are tree-like plants divided into 23 families. The Macedonian pine known as ‘molika’ Pinus peuce Grisebach, 1843 is considered to be a Tertiary relict plant. This is the five needle leafed pine which forms the great compact forest vegetation in Pelister, which reaches up to a height of 2500 metres above sea level.
The trunk of the pine is light in colour, soft, long lasting and has rough bark. It is used for building in construction and for furniture production, while its resin is used in the manufacture of microscopic equipment and optical instruments. The pine cones of the Molika contain ethereal oils such as alpha pinen, beta pinen and lemonen, while the younger ones contain terpene with several fractions.
The pollen of this tree is characteristic and as a fossil residue it can be found in the peat soil below the Big Lake (Golemo Ezero) and in the peat soil on the mountain Jablanica. In the Republic of Macedonia, the Molika pine can also be found on Baba Mountain, Bigla, the Plaken-Snegovo massif (where it has been spread by the wind), Jablanica, the Mountain of Shara, Galichica, Mavrovo, Nidze and Kajmakchalan. This pine is also found in neighbouring countries such as Greece, Albania, Montenegro, Serbia and Bulgaria. Thus it is considered an endemic of the Balkans.
Speaking of the vegetation of Pelister we may freely say that it is of great scientific importance. The molika pine, which was the primary reason for declaring Pelister a national park, can be found here in three associations such as molika with the eagle fern known as Pterideo-Pinetum peucis, molika with blueberry Vaccinio-Pinetum peucis while the alpine part of Pelister is marked by the Gentiano-lutae-Pinetum peucis association. Many plant communities have found a favorable place to vegetate on Pelister and in most of them there are elements originating from the Tertiary period. Some such associations are:
Apart from the plant world, National Park Pelister is abundant with rich endemic and relict fauna. A large number of invertebrate animals are endemic, tercial, glacial and relict fauna but no less is the number of vertebrate animals whose characteristics are distinctive only for Pelister and Baba Mountain. Their number is quite large and comprises microorganisms, algae, protozoa, worms, mollusks, limbed animals and vertebrate animals.
The waters in Pelister
Pelister has developed hydrographic network, so this area abounds with springs, streams and mountain rivers, and there are two glacial lakes.
Pelister massif is cut through with a number of picturesque mountain rivers that run through clear and cold waters. All make up their primeval wilderness decor in the mountainous landscape. They are an ornament of the mountain which venerate landscape seep through.
Some of the water flowing to Lake Prespa belong to the Adriatic basin, and others get Pelagonian Valley through the Aegean basin. From the high mountain valleys descend the nearby 23 river flows. They have a pronounced mountain character. Longest water flow on Pelister that has length of 46 km is the river Shemnica.
The hydrographical properties, with special attraction are the two glacial lakes – Big and Small Lake on Pelister called “Pelister Eyes”.
Big Lake lies at an altitude of 2218. It is one of the highest glacial lakes in Macedonia. It extends north-south. It covers an area of 4.2 ha. Is 223 m long, 162 m wide, with a depth of 14.5 meters.
Small Lake lies at 2180 meters altitude. It is source crest of Red River. Is 79 m long, 68 m wide, 2.6 m deep. Remote is around 2 km from the Big Lake, in northwest direction.